Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federalconstitutional republic comprising 36 states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. The three largest and most influential ethnic groups in Nigeria are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba.

In terms of religion Nigeria is roughly split half and half between Muslims in the North and Christians in the South; a very small minority practice traditional religion.

Geographically, Nigeria is located in western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and has a total area of 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi),[52] making it the world’s 32nd-largest country (after Tanzania). It is comparable in size to Venezuela, and is about twice the size of California. It shares a 4,047 kilometres (2,515 mi) border with Benin (773 km), Niger (1497 km), Chad (87 km), Cameroon (1690 km), and has a coastline of at least 853 km.[53] Nigeria lies between latitudes 4° and 14°N, and longitudes 2° and 15°E.

Nigeria is divided into thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory, which are further sub-divided into 774 Local Government Areas (LGAs). The plethora of states, of which there were only three at independence, reflect the country’s tumultuous history and the difficulties of managing such a heterogeneous national entity at all levels of government.

Nigeria has six cities with a population of over 1 million people (from largest to smallest: Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Kaduna, Port Harcourt, and Benin City). Lagos is the largest city in sub-Saharan Africa, with a population of over 8 million in its urban area alone


Capital Abuja
9°4′N 7°29′E
Largest city Lagos
Official language(s) English
Recognised national languages Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba
Recognised regional languages Edo, Efik, Fulani, Idoma, Ijaw Kanuri[1]
Demonym Nigerian
Government Federal presidential republic
 – President Goodluck Jonathan
 – Vice President Namadi Sambo
Legislature National Assembly
 – Upper house Senate
 – Lower house House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
 – Unification of Southern and Northern Nigeria 1914
 – Declared and recognized 1 October 1960
 – Republic declared 1 October 1963
 – Total 923,768 km2 (32nd)
sq mi
 – Water (%) 1.4
 – 2012 estimate 170,123,740[2] (7th)
 – 2006 census 140,003,542
 – Density 184.2/km2 (71st)
477.0/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 – Total $413.402 billion[3]
 – Per capita $2,578[3]
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 – Total $238.920 billion[3]
 – Per capita $1,490[3]
Gini (2003) 43.7 (medium)
HDI (2011) increase 0.459[4] (low) (156th)
Currency Naira (₦) (NGN)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
 – Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code NG
Internet TLD .ng
Calling code +234


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